Land area: 699,548 sq mi (1,811,831 sq km); total area: 741,096 sq mi (1,919,440 sq km)

Population (2011 est.): 248,216,193 (growth rate: 1.04%); birth rate: 17.76/1000; infant mortality rate: 26.99/1000; life expectancy: 71.62

Capital and largest city (2009 est.): Jakarta, 9.121 million

Other large cities: Surabaya 2.509 million; Bandung 2.412 million; Medan 2.131 million; Semarang 1.296 million

Monetary unit: Rupiah


Indonesia is an archipelago in Southeast Asia consisting of 17,000 islands (6,000 inhabited) and straddling the equator. The largest islands are Sumatra, Java (the most populous), Bali, Kalimantan (Indonesia's part of Borneo), Sulawesi (Celebes), the Nusa Tenggara islands, the Moluccas Islands, and Irian Jaya (also called West Papua), the western part of New Guinea. Its neighbor to the north is Malaysia and to the east is Papua New Guinea.

Indonesia, part of the “ring of fire,” has the largest number of active volcanoes in the world. Earthquakes are frequent. Wallace's line, a zoological demarcation between Asian and Australian flora and fauna, divides Indonesia.

Current government officials

Languages: Bahasa Indonesia (official), English, Dutch, Javanese, and more than 580 other languages and dialects
Ethnicity/race: Javanese 40.6%, Sundanese 15%, Madurese 3.3%, Minangkabau 2.7%, Betawi 2.4%, Bugis 2.4%, Banten 2%, Banjar 1.7%, other or unspecified 29.9% (2000 census) Religions: Muslim 86.1%, Protestant 5.7%, Roman Catholic 3%, Hindu 1.8%, other or unspecified 3.4% (2000 census)
National Holiday: Independence Day, August 17

National Name : Republik Indonesia

Government : Republic.

Literacy rate: 90.4% (2004 est.)

Economic summary

GDP/PPP (2011 est.): $1.139 trillion; per capita $4,700. Real growth rate: 6.5%. Inflation: 5.7%. Unemployment: 6.6%. Arable land: 11.03%. Agriculture: rice, cassava (tapioca), peanuts, rubber, cocoa, coffee, palm oil, copra; poultry, beef, pork, eggs. Labor force: 117.4 million (2011 est.); agriculture 38.3%, industry 12.8%, services 48.9% (2010 est.). Industries: petroleum and natural gas, textiles, apparel, footwear, mining, cement, chemical fertilizers, plywood, rubber, food, tourism. Natural resources: petroleum, tin, natural gas, nickel, timber, bauxite, copper, fertile soils, coal, gold, silver. Exports: $208.9 billion (2011 est.): oil and gas, electrical appliances, plywood, textiles, rubber. Imports: $172.1 billion (2011 est.): machinery and equipment, chemicals, fuels, foodstuffs. Major trading partners: Japan, U.S., Singapore, South Korea, China, Malaysia, India (2011).


Telephones Main lines in use: 37.96 million (2009); mobile cellular: 220 million (2009). Broadcast media: mixture of about a dozen national TV networks - 2 public broadcasters, the remainder private broadcasters - each with multiple transmitters; more than 100 local TV stations; widespread use of satellite and cable TV systems; public radio broadcaster operates 6 national networks as well as regional and local stations; overall, more than 700 radio stations with more than 650 privately-operated (2008). Internet hosts: 1.342 million (2010). Internet users: 20 million (2009).


Railways Total: 5,042 km (2008). Roadways: total: 437,759 km; paved: 258,744 km; unpaved: 179,015 km (2008 est.). Waterways: 21,579 km (2011). Ports and terminals: Banjarmasin, Belawan, Kotabaru, Krueg Geukueh, Palembang, Panjang, Sungai Pakning, Tanjung Perak, Tanjung Priok. Airports: 676 (2012).

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