Land area: 3,511,003 sq mi (9,093,507 sq km); total area: 3,855,102 sq mi (9,984,670 sq km)

Population (2012 est.): 34,300,083 (growth rate: 0.78%); birth rate: 10.28/1000; infant mortality rate: 4.85/1000; life expectancy: 81.48; density per sq km: 3 Capital (2004 est.): Ottawa, Ontario, 1,170,000 (metro. area)

Largest cities (metropolitan areas) (2009 est.): Toronto, 5,377,000; Montreal, 3,750,000; Vancouver, 2,170,000; Calgary, 1,160,100; Edmonton, 1,101,600; Quebec, 710,700; Hamilton, 710,300; Winnipeg, 702,400; London, 459,700; Kitchener, 450,100 Monetary unit: Canadian dollar


Canada is a federation of ten provinces (Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, New Brunswick, Newfoundland and Labrador, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Prince Edward Island, Quebec, and Saskatchewan) and three territories (Northwest Territories, Yukon, and Nunavut). Formally considered a constitutional monarchy, Canada is governed by its own House of Commons. While the governor-general is officially the representative of Queen Elizabeth II, in reality the governor-general acts only on the advice of the Canadian prime minister. Languages: English 59.3%, French 23.2% (both official); other 17.5%

Ethnicity/race: British Isles origin 28%, French origin 23%, other European 15%, indigenous Indian and Inuit 2%, other, mostly Asian, African, Arab 6%, mixed background 26%

National Holiday: Canada Day, July 1 Religions: Roman Catholic 43%, Protestant 23% (including United Church 10%, Anglican 7%, Baptist 2%, Lutheran 2%), other Christian 4%, Muslim 2%, none 16% (2001) Literacy rate: 99% (2011 est.)

Economic summary:

GDP/PPP (2011 est.): $1.389 trillion; per capita $40,300. Real growth rate: —2.2%. Inflation: 2.8%. Unemployment: 7.5%. Arable land: 5%. Agriculture: wheat, barley, oilseed, tobacco, fruits, vegetables; dairy products; forest products; fish. Labor force: 18.67 million (2011); agriculture 2%, manufacturing 14%, construction 5%, services 75%, other 3% (2004). Industries:transportation equipment, chemicals, processed and unprocessed minerals, food products, wood and paper products, fish products, petroleum and natural gas. Natural resources: iron ore, nickel, zinc, copper, gold, lead, molybdenum, potash, diamonds, silver, fish, timber, wildlife, coal, petroleum, natural gas, hydropower. Exports: $450.6 billion f.o.b. (2011 est.): motor vehicles and parts, industrial machinery, aircraft, telecommunications equipment; chemicals, plastics, fertilizers; wood pulp, timber, crude petroleum, natural gas, electricity, aluminum. Imports: $459.6 billion f.o.b. (2011 est.): machinery and equipment, motor vehicles and parts, crude oil, chemicals, electricity, durable consumer goods. Major trading partners: U.S., Japan, UK, China, Mexico (2004).


Telephones: main lines in use: 17,021,000 (2011); mobile cellular: 24,037,000 (2011). Radio broadcast stations: AM 245, FM 582, shortwave 6 (2004). Television broadcast stations: 80 (plus many repeaters) (1997). Internet hosts: 8,515,000 (2011). Internet users: 26.96 million (2011).


Railways: total: 46,552 km (2011). Highways: total: 1.0423 million (2011). Waterways: 631 km; note: Saint Lawrence Seaway of 3,769 km, including the Saint Lawrence River of 3,058 km, shared with United States (2003). Ports and harbors: Fraser River Port, Goderich, Montreal, Port Cartier, Quebec, Saint John's (Newfoundland), Sept Isles, Vancouver. Airports: 1,404 (2011 est.).

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